It is easy to underestimate the impact of the Bologna reforms on European higher education. No more so than in Spain where the introduction of master's programs and competition between institutions has transformed the sector. Before, higher education was primarily domestic and heavily oriented towards theoretical knowledge; today, the reforms have helped graduate education take advantage of the shift towards practise and specialisation, and hence specialised master’s programs have developed.
In the Spanish country vignette, we explore how graduate education has evolved and discuss the current challenges facing institutions. Recommended reading for anyone working with partner institutions in Spain, or seeking to learn more about how the education system shapes students from the country.